using statement executes code that works on a resource that needs to be manually disposed of afterwards. You can thing of it as a convenient combination of a local variabele declaration alongside a
finally block that makes sure the contents of the variable is disposed proeprly at the end, even if an exception happens:
using fs := new FileStream("textfile.txt", FileMode.Open) do begin var b := new byte; fs.Read(b, 0, b.Length); end; // the filestream is closed here.
The statement begins with the keyword
using, followed by the name of a new variable and an initializer; typically the initializer will create a new object, or call a method that returns a new object, but in theory, any expression is permitted. The
do keyword can be followed by a single statement or a
end block grouping multiple statements.
At the end of the
using statement, the
Dispose method wil be called on the object (if it supports disposing). This call is ensured even when an exception occurs, as if it were encapsulated in a
Essentially, the above code is equivalent to:
with fs := new FileStream("textfile.txt", FileMode.Open) do try var b := new byte; fs.Read(b, 0, b.Length); finally IDisposable(fs):Dispose(); end;
The Disposable Pattern
You can read more about the Disposable Pattern here. Essetially, it centers around an interface (called
IDisposable on .NET and the Island-based native platforms, and
AutoCloseable in Java, which provides a single method (
close), which the compiler will automatically call, if the interface is implemented.
using on an object that does implement the interface is permitted, but has no effect at runtime. However, this allows you to apply proper precautions when using vlasses that might later change to become disposable.
Auto-Release Pools (Cocoa)
When targetting the Cocoa platform, the
using statement has been extended with a special syntax using the
autoreleasepool keyword, in order to create new Auto-Release Pool for this thread, and clean it up at the end of the
Please refer to the Auto-Release Pool topic for more details.
using autoreleasepool do begin NSApplicationMain(argc, argv); end;
using autoreleasepool syntax is relevant and available on the Cocoa platform only.
- Disposable Pattern
- Auto-Release Pool
- Automatic Reference Counting (ARC)
using (__autoreleasepool)statement in C#
- try (__autoreleasepool) in Java
__usingkeyword in Swift
usingkeyword in C#
autoreleasepoolkeyword in Silver